Two-dimensional (2D) materials, are crystalline substances with a thickness of one to a few atoms. The most famous 2D representatives are graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). Both of them have hexagonal honeycomb structures, with excellent thermal conductance and ultimate mechanical strength.


While graphene, a single layer of carbon atoms, is a perfect electrical conductor with extremely high electron mobility, h-BN consists of boron and nitrogen atoms, and is an excellent insulator with large band gap and excellent chemical stability.

Graphene and h-BN have been applied in many applications, including electronics, photovoltaics, filtration and DNA translocation etc.